Holding Patterns and Entries

First and for most important question of this content is why to hold? Reasons of holding are multiple and expected to increase with growth of air traffic. Some common reasons for holding are: Aircraft in emergency Traffic congestion Equipment Outage Pilots buying time to make decision or trouble shooting Bad weather Unavailability of Runway Holding

ABAS, GBAS and SBAS

Aircraft Based Augmentation System Ground Based Augmentation System Space Based Augmentation System ABAS GBAS SBAS It is an augmentation system that augments and/or integrates the information obtained from other GNSS elements with information available on board the aircraft. Example: RAIM – Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring GBAS is primarily used for precision approach operations. It is

Part 4: GPS – Stand Alone GPS and GPS Overlay Approach Procedures

Part 3: GPS – Use of GPS for IFR operations Stand Alone GPS Approaches These are non-precision approaches designed based in sole use of GPS equipment. These approaches are slowly being phased out and at present less than 200 approaches are left world wide. Approach charts for stand alone GPS approaches are marked as “GPS

Part 3: GPS – Use of GPS for IFR operations

Part 2: GPS – RAIM (Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring) and FDE (Fault Detection and Exclusion) This section covers the basic requirements and understanding of use of GPS for IFR operations. For detailed and technical equipment requirements please refer ICAO and state regulatory documents. The content here forth in this section is written from pilot’s point

Part 1: GPS – Global Positioning System

GPS – Global Positioning System is space based radio navigation system used to determine precise position anywhere in the world. GPS structure is broadly divided into three segments (Space, Control and User Segments). GPS is maintained and monitored by Department of defense(DOD). Position determined by GPS is based on cartesian earth-centered, earth fixed coordinates as

Airbus A321XLR Quick Update!

Airbus Airspace Interior

Announced in 2019, the A321XLR extends the availability of the single-aisle jet to a new range of more than 3,500 km and a total capacity of 4,300 miles. It is the longest range single aisle airliner. The A321XLR cabin is configured in a single-aisle layout with a high level of comfort and convenience for all

ATS Route Designators and Usage in voice communication

As per ICAO Annex 11 basic designators for ATS routes shall consist of a maximum of 6 alpha numeric characters as per the rules defined below. Route designation includes type of route: high/low altitude, specific airborne navigation equipment requirements (RNAV), aircraft type using the route primarily or exclusively. Basic designator of ATS route contains one

Phonetic Alphabets and Numbers

  A AL FAH K KEY LOH U YOU NEE FORM 4 FOW ER B BRAH VOH L LEE MAH V VIK TAH 5 FIFE C CHAR LEE M MIKE W WISS KEY 6 SIX D DELL TAH N NO VEM BER X ECKS RAY 7 SEV EN E ECK OH O OSS CAH Y

Part 4: PBN – RNP APCH, RNP AR APCH, RNP AR DP and A-RNP

ICAO Approach Classifications

Part 3: PBN – Airspace Concept RNP Approach (RNP APCH) RNP Approach procedures are titled as RNAV(GPS) and offer several level of minima to accommodate varying aircraft equipage: LNAV LNAV/VNAV Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance (LPV) More information on LNAV, LNAV/VNAV and LPV is given in consecutive parts. Key points of RNP Approach: RNP APCH