TACAN stands for Tactical Air Navigation. It is used for military or naval operations. TACAN ground equipment consists of either fixed or mobile transmitting unit also TACAN does not operate through conventional VOR equipment. TACAN is pulse system and operates in Ultrahigh Frequency (UHF) band of frequencies. Also Read: Frequency Bands and Frequency Allocation for

Takeoff Funnel

Takeoff funnel represents the area surrounding the take off flight path, withing which all obstacles must be cleared, assuming they are all projected on the intended track.

Obstacle free zone (OFZ)

Obstacle free zone is the airspace above the inner approach surface, inner transitional surfaces, and balked landing surface and that portion of the strip bounded by these surfaces, which is not penetrated by any fixed obstacle other than a low-mass and frangible mounted one required for air navigation purposes.

Runway Incursion

Runway incursion is occurrence at an aerodrome involving the incorrect present of person, aircraft or vehicle  on the protected area of surface designated for the landing and takeoff of aircraft.

Approach Lighting System Explained!

Approach light system(ALS) is part of aviation ground lighting patters primarily used for identification and aircraft alignment with runway center line. ALS is made of several parts collectively working to serve the said purpose. Availability of ALS category for runway depends on its licensing category and need for continuous operation during period of poor visibility.

Preventive Maintenance

Preventive maintenance is programmed maintenance work done in order to prevent failure or degradation of facilities. Example: preventive maintenance of ALS preventive maintenance of navigation aids etc.

Runway Reference Code Numbers and Code Letters

Runway Code Numbers Runway Code Runway Length Code 1 Runways less than 800 metres long Code 2 Runways 800-1199 metres long Code 3 Runways 1200-1799 metres long Code 4 Runways 1800 metres long Runway Code Letters Code Letter Wingspan Outer main gear wheel span A < 15 m < 4.5 m B 15 m but

Holding Patterns and Entries

First and for most important question of this content is why to hold? Reasons of holding are multiple and expected to increase with growth of air traffic. Some common reasons for holding are: Aircraft in emergency Traffic congestion Equipment Outage Pilots buying time to make decision or trouble shooting Bad weather Unavailability of Runway Holding


Aircraft Based Augmentation System Ground Based Augmentation System Space Based Augmentation System ABAS GBAS SBAS It is an augmentation system that augments and/or integrates the information obtained from other GNSS elements with information available on board the aircraft. Example: RAIM – Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring GBAS is primarily used for precision approach operations. It is

Part 4: GPS – Stand Alone GPS and GPS Overlay Approach Procedures

Part 3: GPS – Use of GPS for IFR operations Stand Alone GPS Approaches These are non-precision approaches designed based in sole use of GPS equipment. These approaches are slowly being phased out and at present less than 200 approaches are left world wide. Approach charts for stand alone GPS approaches are marked as “GPS