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Takeoff Speed Optimization – Speed Ratios V1/Vr and V2/Vs

Takeoff optimization principal has objective of attaining highest possible performance limited takeoff weight while fulfilling airworthiness requirements. Parameters influencing takeoff performance can be Sustained Parameters (can’t be changed) and Free Parameters(variable to certain extent). As part of free parameters takeoff speed optimization is the most important method to gain better takeoff performance and hence higher

De-rated Thrust vs Flex Thrust (Assumed Temperature) Take Off

De-rated thrust and Flex Thrust (Assumed Temperature) Take Off are two methods of thrust reduction for take-off. Takeoff with reduced thrust helps in increasing engine life and reliability while reducing the maintenance and operating costs. Since aircraft does not takeoff with maximum takeoff weight it is possible to reduce the takeoff thrust and yet meet

TOD, TOR and ASD – Post Amendment 42 (TODR, TORR and ASDR)

Different aircrafts are certified at different times and comply with different certification rules. Three major certifications rules were defined as: FAR Part 25 – no consideration for reaction time of pilot Amendment to FAR Part 25 known as Amendment 25-42 – over consideration of reaction time Post Amendment 42 – current undermentioned considerations We are

Clearway, Stopway, TORA, TODA, ASDA & LDA – Available Takeoff Lengths

Following are the available takeoff lengths declared by appropriate authorities for for different airfields. Knowledge on these terms is important for performance calculations. CLEARWAY Clearway is defined as the area beyond the runway with following characteristics: centrally located about the extended center line of the runway under the control of appropriate airport authorities be expressed

Vmcg, Vmca and Vmcl Explained!

Vmcg, Vmca and Vmcl primarily stands for minimum control speed on ground, air and in approach and landing. Vmcg Vmcg is the calibrated airspeed during the take-off run at which if critical engine fails, it is possible to maintain control of aeroplane with use of primary aerodynamic controls alone (rudder) to enable safe takeoff. In

Maximum Structural Weights

Manufacturer’s Empty Weight (MEW) It is the weight of structure, power plant, furnishings, systems and other items of equipment that are considered an integral part of the aircraft. It is dry weight including only those fluids which are contained in closed systems(e.g. hydraulic fluid). Operational Empty Weight (OEW) It is the sum of manufacturer’s empty

Vs1g, Vs and Vsr Speeds Explained!

Vs1g and Vs are two speeds majorly abbreviated for stalling conditions. Vs1g -corresponds to maximum lift coefficient i.e. Clmax. Clmax is the condition when angle of attack is maximum and load factor is equal to one. Vs -corresponds to conventional stall condition. This is the time when lift suddenly collapses and load factor is less

CAS, IAS, TAS, GS and Mach Number – Explained!

Before discussing on CAS, IAS, TAS, GS and Mach Number it is important to consider the measurement of total (pitot) and static pressure. Total Pressure – To measure total pressure airflow is stopped by means of a forward facing tube called as pitot tube. This tube measures the impact pressure which is sum of static